In Situ Access to Contaminants

developers of hydraulic fracturing and other innovations

Pertinent Literature
 
Over the past thirty years, considerable study has been directed at the use of hydraulic fractures as tools for remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater, and bedrock.  Practically every aspect of the art and science has been documented in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, seminars, patents, and other media.  A bibliography listing a significant portion of that work can be retrieved by this link

Technical Briefs
 
Some areas of common interest have been addressed and summarized in a collection of notes, fact-sheets, and memoranda we have prepared over the years.  For convenience, these links can retrieve some of the more popular.

 
Fracturing Concepts: Click hereto learn more about the following:
  • Physics of Fracturing:  Hydraulic fracturing involves the response of solid material to induced stress, which can be characterized as a crack.
  • Fracture Shape and Orientation:  The form of a fracture follows fundamental principles. 
  • Manipulating Stress and Form:  Hydraulic pressure acting upon a surface creates stress.  
  • Propagation:  Fractures will follow a “path of least resistance” defined by processes that control fractures.
  • And more

 
 
Appearance of Fractures: Images from Excavations
     • Center Hill Landfill
     • STRESSOIL
     • Clemson X-Station



• Powdersville
• Tassrupp
• Sarnia

 
Other Notes:
     • Longevity of Fractures.
     • Guar as a carbon source / oxidant demand of guar


• Fracturing Under buildings
Allowable Strain in Structures

Popular References
These publications have been especially popular and informative.

Murdoch, L. C. (1993) "Hydraulic Fracturing of Soil During Laboratory Experiments, Part I: Methods and Observations." Geotechnique 43:2  (255-265.)

Murdoch, L. C. (1993) "Hydraulic fracturing of soil during laboratory experiments, Part 2: Propagation." Geotechnique 43:2  (266-276.)

Murdoch, L. C. (1993) "Hydraulic fracturing of soil during laboratory experiments, Part 3: Theoretical Analysis." Geotechnique 43:2  (277-287.)

Murdoch, L. C., D. Wilson, K. Savage, W. W. Slack and J. G. Uber (1995) Alternative Methods for Fluid Delivery and Recovery. EPA/625/R-94/003. USEPA, Cincinnati.

Murdoch, L. C. (1995) "Forms of hydraulic fractures created during a field test in fine-grained glacial drift,." Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 28 (23-35.)

Murdoch, L. C. and W. W. Slack (2002) "Forms of Hydraulic Fractures in Shallow Fine-Grained Formations." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 128:6  (479-487.)

Murdoch, L. C. (2002) "Mechanical Analysis of Idealized Shallow Hydraulic Fractures." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 128:6  (488-495.)

Murdoch, L. C., J. R. Richardson, Q. Tan, S. C. Malin and C. Fairbanks (2006) "Forms and Sand Transport in Shallow Hydraulic Fractures in Residual Soil." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 43:10  (1061-1073.)

Rajaram, V. and P. Banerjee (1993) Hydraulic Fracturing Technology - Applications Analysis and Technology Evaluation Report. EPA/540/R-93/505. US EPA Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH.

Siegrist, R. L., K. S. Lowe, L. C. Murdoch, W. W. Slack and T. C. Houk (1998) X-231A demonstration of in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery and reactive barrier destruction. ORNL/TM-13534. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Siegrist, R. L., K. S. Lowe, L. C. Murdoch, T. L. Case and D. A. Pickering (1999) "Oxidization By Fracture Emplaced Reactive Solids." Journal of Environmental Engineering 125:5  (429-440.)