In Situ Access to Contaminants

universal applicability

Any geological medium can be fractured
In situ remediation can be accomplished when treatment materials are placed into porous subsurface formations.  Whether the treatment material infuses the porous space or forces the opening of a new space depends upon the 1) the geology and 2) the viscosity and size of any solid particles.

The adjacent table shows the injection mode that can be expected for different combinations of geologies and treatment materials. (Click the table for an expanded view).

Injection Mode Matrix

Applications for remediation groundwater, soil, or bedrock.

The injection of treatment materials with hydraulic fracturing methods can support remediation processes in multiple ways. 
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Physics of fracturing apply equally to saturated and unsaturated media.
The process of opening of new space within prorous media involves separating grains of soil or breaking bonds between crystals of rock.  Thus, the nature of the fluid in the pore space has, at best, secondary consequences.